Discuss the concept of languages, the caravans and encounters between Europeans and Africans in the 19th century?

– What languages were important for encounters between Europeans and Africans in the 19th century?

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– How important were African languages (give examples from the book).

– Organization of the caravan and the role language played

– Learning African languages (uses?)

– The role of interpreters.

b.) Discuss the use of drugs and alcohol and the concept of charisma and tropical hygiene during the encounters between Europeans and Africans in the 19th century?

Types of drugs and alcohol, who used it more (explorers or Africans?), why, where and how widespread during encounters.
Define charisma; what was the role of charisma during encounters?
Define the concept of tropical hygiene as used in Fabian. What were the different facets and conceptions of hygiene and what role did tropical hygiene play in either bringing Africans and European explorers together or keeping them apart during encounters?
How was leadership, commanding/control, death, sex, beauty and conviviality perceived by European explorers in Africa during the 19th century encounters?
How did European explorers perceive command and control (including theatricality) in Africa during encounters? Did Africans also have their own command and control/theatricality style?
How did Europeans perceive death and dying in Africa? Was the death of Europeans common in the continent during encounters? What were the reasons that explorers died in Africa during that period?
Discuss sex (erotic tensions), beauty (African versus European) and conviviality as perceived by European explorers during encounters?
What were the roles of objects, spectacles/performances, noise, rituals, music, measuring, collecting, reading and writing during the 19th century encounters between European explorers and Africans?
Discuss what happened with each of the above during encounters and the part played by either Africans or Europeans to facilitate its occurrence?
What were the contributions of Africans in the Exploration of Africa during the 19th Century?
How did Africans assist European explorers throughout the process of explorations? E.g., during the movement of the caravan, in directions, in interpreting, as guides, as porters, in measuring and collecting, etc. etc.
Discuss the influence of slavery and colonialism on African historiography?
The answer is in the introductory lecture.
Discuss the long-term and immediate triggers on African Nationalism?
The answer is in the introductory lecture.

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