Industry Sector Pollution Prevention and Life Cycle Analysis

Term Paper: Industry Sector Pollution Prevention and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)


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This term paper will allow you to choose among a variety of industries and research opportunities for pollution prevention (PP) and life cycle analysis (LCA). This paper is expected to be written at an advanced, upper level.

You may choose an industry sector, process, operation, etc. of your choosing. Your research topic must be approved by the instructor before you continue researching. You will provide 8 peer-reviewed sources addressing PP/LCA and then a detailed outline with subheadings, citations, and a reference page before you begin writing.



Research topic due: September 21st

Four peer-reviewed sources on PP/LCA due: September 28th

Four additional peer-reviewed sources on PP/LCA due: October 5th

Outline including subheadings, citations, and a reference page due: October 21st

Great start on writing!

First draft due: October 30th

Final paper, incorporating corrections due: November 13th

                           (The final paper must include the first draft, marked-up copy).

Presentations: December 2-11th


  • Introduction

Good. I assume you are adding more to this….for paper.

  • Background information and history of the industry.
  • S. industry statistics with maps/tables/charts.
  • Economic trends and consumption with maps/tables/charts.

Your data is from 2005. Anything more recent?

  • Industrial process description with process flow diagram – inputs and outputs. Using subheadings don’t forget specific energies, raw materials including water, air/water/solid wastes, etc.

What is each specific process? Use subheadings. Associate each input/output with each specific process.

Be specific on the chemicals in the wastewater, cooling water, etc.

Where are the raw inputs?

  • Quantification of pollutants released annually in the U.S.
  • Pollution prevention and LCA opportunities to reduce inputs/outputs.
  • Reduction of resource inputs and outputs using PP/LCA. Use subheadings to list specific inputs and outputs.

HOW are cooling water, wastewater wastes, energy, process water, etc. reduced?

  • Revised process flow diagram incorporating pollution prevention and LCA applications. You should address at least 5-6 inputs/outputs.
  • Critical review of this reductionist approach versus a systems approach ideology. (Your opinion)
  • Industrial ecology and sustainability approaches and technologies.

Are there alternatives to rubber tires? Or tires in general?

  • Conclusion with speculations on future developments in this industry. (Your opinion)


EPA’s Profile of the Dry Cleaning Industry is attached as example for the first 6 bullet points. Many case studies will be addressed in class as example to the remaining bullet points. Each outline item should be dealt with using the latest information from the scientific literature (primary, peer-reviewed) or government sources only. Recommended sources include The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, the Green Chemistry Journal, University of Michigan’s Center for Sustainable Systems “Publications” link at, The Journal of Industrial Ecology, the Urban Metabolism Journal, EPA’s LCA/Dfe Case Studies at, books outside my office and purchased for the library, etc. Only two of the 8 sources should be government documents. Make sure to cite and reference sources properly. Use the citation and reference format of Council of Science Editors (CSE).






Mechanical and Organizational Guidelines:

  The text, excluding maps/tables/charts, must be 10-15 pages, double-spaced, Arial or Times New Roman font.


   Use 1-inch margins on all sides.


  Include a title page with your name, course title, date, and instructor’s name.


   Number your pages either at the top or bottom, right or center of the page.


   Use headings and subheadings to organize your paper. This allows the reader to know where you are going. Headings and subheadings may be in bold or italics, centered or on the left.


   Include a reference page in the CSE format.


   All maps/tables/charts must have captions and references.


   Make sure the works listed on your reference page are cited in your paper. Be consistent in your citation and reference style.


   Design each paragraph to have a thesis statement and several supporting statements. Include transition sentences so that the ideas flow logically throughout the paper.


   There should be no spelling or grammatical errors. Formatting should be consistent.


   Be clear and concise in your explanations and discussions. Are some sections too wordy and awkwardly phrased?


   Proofread your paper carefully. Have a friend read it or take it to the Writing Center to make sure it is understandable to the general audience. Read your paper aloud.


   Finally, one of the best strategies for writing a good paper is to write it and then leave it alone for a few days. Then come back to the paper and revise it. This time usually allows you to catch errors and make improvements to the paper.


















Evaluation Rubric: First draft = 50 points.                                                                                            _____/50

  Poor OK Good Very Good Outstanding
*Well-defined introduction of topic and flow throughout paper.          
*Logic and development of proposed pollution prevention and LCA methods.          
*Review of the scientific literature.          
*Reflects solid understanding of the literature and complete coverage of the topics.          
Writing style (clarity, flow, transitions, and thesis statements).          
Writing mechanics (grammar, spelling, headings, subheadings, organization, citations, and references).          
Additional Comments:





* These sections will be more heavily weighted.

























Evaluation Rubric: Final paper = 20 points.                                                                                          _____/20

  Poor OK Good Very Good Outstanding
*Well-defined introduction of topic and flow throughout paper.          
*Logic and development of proposed pollution prevention methods.          
*Review of the scientific literature.          
*Reflects solid understanding of the literature and complete coverage of the topics.          
Writing style (clarity, flow, transitions, and thesis statements).          
Writing mechanics (grammar, spelling, headings, subheadings, organization, citations, and references).          
Additional Comments:





* These sections will be more heavily weighted.






















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