Gas Lawsand Kinetic Molecular Theory
The behavior of ideal gases can be described by four parameters: the pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T) and number of moles (n) of gas and how they are interrelated. The Kinetic Molecular Model for an ideal gas describes the behavior of gas particles at the atomic/particle level based on a set of assumptions stated below.
In a gas sample, individual molecules have widely varying speeds; however, because of the vast number of molecules and collisions involved, the molecular speed distribution and average speed are constant. This molecular speed distribution is known as a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and it depicts the relative numbers of molecules in a bulk sample of gas that possesses a given speed.
In the kinetic molecular theory, the root mean square (RMS) velocity of a particle, urms, is defined as the square root of the average of the squares of the velocitieswith n = the number of particles:
The molecular speed distribution for oxygen gas at 300 K is shown on the right. Very few molecules move at either very low or very high speeds. The number of molecules with intermediate speeds increases rapidly up to a maximum, which is the most probable speed, then drops off rapidly. Note that the most probable speed, νp, is a little less than 400 m/s, while the root mean square speed, urms, is closer to 500 m/s.
In this lab, you will investigate the tow of gas laws, Charles’ lawand Graham’s Law of Effusion, using the computer simulation. You will determine the relationship in ideal gases between volume and temperature, and average speed and molar mass.
Copy this in your web browser. https://media.pearsoncmg.com/bc/bc_0media_chem/chem_sim/kmt/KMT.php
After going over Overview and Learning Outcomes, Click the tab “Experiment” and you will see this on the screen:
Choose “Run Demonstration” to learn how to use this virtual simulation. You will explore the relationship between pressure and temperature (Amonton’s Law) and kinetic molecular theory in the Demonstration.
Once you run through the demonstration, you will be led to run experiments.
You can toggle between macroscopic and submicroscopic views any time.
The main components of the macroscopic view in the simulation:
You will study Charles’s Law with the default gas sample, 0.05 mole Helium.
P, V, n, the substance, T
Use the Track function explained earlier to help answer this question.
|Table 1. RMS speed of gases|
|Molar mass g/mol|
|RMS speed m/s|
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