Poverty – Indigenous Australian Women with Disabilities

NOTE: USE AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH, USE AUSTRALIAN CONTEXTAND DISCUSS SOCIAL POLICIES AND ISSUES IN AUSTRALIA

 

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NOTE: Remember, this is a Social Work course and you need to be engaging with the Social Work literature.

 

FORMAT:Case Study Essay: Poverty

 

LENGTH: 1000 words

 

REFERENCES:

 

  1. Carson, E & Kerr, L, Income Support in Australian social policy and the human services, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2017, 171-199 9 (Chp 7)
  2. Pearson, N, Positive and negative welfare and Australia’s indigenous communities, Family Matters, (54), 1999, 30 – 35
  3. Carson, E & Kerr, L, Indigenous Australians in Australian social policy and the human services, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2017, 310 – 337 (Chp12)
  4. Fawcett, B & Plath, D, A national disability insurance scheme: what social work has to offer, British Journal of Social Work, 44(3), 2014, 747 – 762
  5. Mendes, P, Retrenching or renovating the Australian welfare state: the paradox of the Howard government’s neo-liberalism, International Journal of Social Welfare, 18(1), 2009, 102-110
  6. Miller, P & Hayward, D, Social policy ‘generosity’ at a time of fiscal austerity: the strange case of Australia’s National Disability Insurance Scheme, Critical Social Policy, 37(1), 2016, 128-147
  7. Zufferey, C, Homelessness, social policy, and social work: a way forward, Australian Social Work, 64 (3), 2011, 241 – 244

 

“VULNERABLE GROUP TO BE DISCUSSED” FOR QUESTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5:INDEGIONOUS AUSTRALIAN WOMEN WITH DISABILITIES(mention an age group, mention how they are also vulnerable to HOMELESSNESS + please provide a micro and macro perspective on this group).

 

QUESTIONS:

 

  1. Why are some groups in society more vulnerable to poverty than others?
  2. With reference to one particular group, answer the following:

– What precipitates many people in the group into poverty?

– Why do governments tend not to introduce equity-based measures to reduce poverty in this group?

– What could governments do to eliminate or at least reduce poverty in this group?

 

 

This unit examines the context and challenges for social policy in Australia and the relationship between social policy and social work practice. Topics covered include: fundamental debates in social policy; the development of welfare policy in contemporary and historical socio-political contexts, the impacts of remedial welfare policy and policy solutions to address disadvantage and strategies to influence policy development.

 

LEARNING OUTCOMES

 

  1. Identify fundamental debates in social policy about the aims and achievements of Australia’s welfare system
  2. Critically assess the relationships between policy making, policy analysis, policy research and social work practice
  3. Consider the implications of policy values for alternative forms of social welfare practice
  4. Analyse current policy issues from a standpoint directed toward developing alternative policy and practice pathways to the future
  5. Reflect on personal values and attitudes in relation to significant social policy in practice issues

 

FAQ FROM TUTOR:

 

With reference to one particular group, answer the following:

In the lecture you mentioned Health, housing, indigenous Australians etc – were you referring to this question?

Just confused as is Health or housing a group? or do you mean people who are homeless? have health issues? etc..

Group refers to people, this might be certain groups  who experience homelessness or who experience health and well-being issues, or who experience poverty which is related to many areas.

This is a population group in Australia so the use of Australian references isimportant.

THINGS WRONG / MISSINGIN THE BELOW ESSAY

MISSING – DISCUSS ONE PARTICULAR GROUP AND THE REASONS THEY MAY BE AT HIGHER RISK THAN OTHER GROUPS.

MISSING – OVERVIEW OF POLICY ISSUE…..

MISSING – THERE IS NO DISCUSSION AROUND POLICY IMPLEMENTATION AND IMPACT; THE RECOMMENDATIONS AS TO HOW THE GOVERNMENT CAN ALLEVIATE POVERTY ARE NOT INTEGRATED TO ISSUES IDENTIFIED WITHIN THIS PAPER.

MISSING – RELEVANT POLOCIES OR SERVICE INVOLVEMENT

Introduction

This essay will discussand illustratehow neoliberal macro-economic policies have created andpublished disparities for groups experiencingdisadvantages andequality, thereby situating these vulnerable groups into poverty in Australia. With relation tosingle older women leaving a violent relationship, their relationship between poverty and incarceration rates will be explored, alongside failures of government policy outreaches in addressing poverty and possible solutions will be explored.

THE HILIGHTED WORDSIN THE ABOVE PARAGRAPH ARE PLAGERISED (from a highly marked essay) IT IS NOT COMPLETED AND DOESN’T FULLY MATCH WITH THIS ESSAY, THIS IS JUST AN EXAMPLE. COULD YOU PLEASE WRITE AN INTRODUCTION FOR THIS ESSAY? ONE THAT GIVES A DETAILED OVERVIEW OF KEY POINTS THAT THIS ESSAY WILL DISCUSS.

Poverty is a lack of access to resources and income opportunities(Goodhart 2017, pg. 28) I AM WONDERING IF THIS IS CITED CORRECTLY AS I DO NOT SEE “POVERTY IS A LACK OF ACCESS TO RESOURCES AND INCOME OPPORTUNITIES” IN THIS PAGE. Vulnerability to poverty in society is comprised of political, social, economic, and environmental factors (Carson & Kerr 2017) states that some community groups are more vulnerable than others due to different factors. These factors undermine the capacity for self-protection, diminishes, or blocks access to social protection, complicates or delays recovery, exposes some groups to more severe or more frequent hazards than other groups. At the same time,social positioning factors such as geographical location, gender, age, class, community structure, ethnicity, and number of dependants, health conditions such as disabilities or HIV/AIDS, community decision-making, and political issues influence people’s vulnerability in society.

THERE ARE TWO MAIN POINTS MADE IN THE ABOVE PARAGRAPH; HOWEVER, THEY APPEAR DISJOINTED FROM ONE ANOTHER. THIS HAS LED TO THE POINT OF YOUR OPENING PARAGRAPH BEING UNCLEAR. PLEASE CONSIDER REWRITING THIS PARAGRAPH.

Vulnerability from the perspective of the poor households considers exposures to severe risks and a lack of defence against deprivation. Lack of defence is seen as a function of social marginalisation that consequently leads to economic marginalisation.THIS SENTENCE USES PASSIVE VOICE. TO MAKE IT MORE POWERFUL PLEASE USE ACTIVE VOICE.Inequality and marginalisation – for a population to escape poverty, all the members in the society must be involved in making decisions especially when it comes to sharing and distributing resources in the community (Goodhart, 2017, pg. 56)THIS ISN’T FROM GOODHART IT IS FROM CARSON & KERR 2017, P 125. Rapid population growth may also lead to higher vulnerability to poverty. Other factors that may significantly make some groups be more vulnerable to poverty than others include education levels- illiterate people are likely to be more vulnerable than those who are educated and informed; lack of access to resources such as technology may also make some groups more vulnerable than those with access to such resources.

Single older women are among the most vulnerable groups in the society. These women have been found to be highly vulnerable to violent relationships as compared to other groups. In most cases, men consider older women as people who cannot find other partners easily just because of the perception that men will mostly prefer younger women than them. At the same time, older women in most cases are financially and emotionally independent. These women have had enough experience in life, they have stable jobs and reliable sources of income such that when faced with relationship challenges, it becomes so easy for them to leave unlike what happens with younger women. Also, some of these women are faced with trauma from past relationships which also makes them vulnerable to leaving violent relationships.THIS ESSAY NEEDS TO DISCUSS WHY “SINGLE OLDER WOMEN LEAVING A VIOLENT RELATIONSHIP” ARE MORE VULNERABLE TO POVERTY, NOT HOW THEY ARE MORE FINANCIALLY INDEPENDENT AND WHAT MAKES IT EASIER FOR THEM TO LEAVE A VIOLENT RELATIONSHIP. THESE POINTS CAN MAYBE BE GIVEN IN RECOMMENDATIONS.

It is so unfortunate that the society will mostly discriminate or make such women unwanted and especially after leaving their relationships. THIS SENTENCE DOESN’T MAKE SENSE.People perceive single older women as failures, that they have failed to build and manage their homes. It is surprising that people will mostly perceive women as the cause of marriage failure, without considering the part men also fail to play. When such people continue to experience such lives for years, they find no motivation to work hard and live in poverty for a long period of time. They spend most of their time thinking about their miseries since they lack a pieceTHE WORD CHOISE IS INAPPROPRIATE FOR THE CONTEXT. A DIFFERENT HOMONYM WILL MAKE SENSE HEREof mind.

After leaving a violent relationship, single older women will mostly bear the cost of raising their children (Carson & Kerr 2017). Men who are violent ignore their responsibilities and leave everything to women. Such women have to take care of all their children’s emotions as well as theirs. Despite how hardworking the woman may be; she remains poor because of the increased responsibilities. It also becomes a challenge for the single old aged women to continue working hard due to reduced concentration. Balancing between family and work as a single woman with children is never easy. Some end up losing their jobs while others experiencing productivity in their businesses and hence contributing the high rate of poverty. THIS SENTENCE DOESN’T MAKE SENSE.

Policy implementation and impacts

The government has established some policies, intended to protect women against violence, which has had a major impact on this issue. For instance, the 2012 effective aid policy positioned the Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV) policy for both gender equality and safety and security issues (Carson & Kerr 2017, pg. 99). Also, the Violence Against Women Act was signed by the president. This policy enacted some new provisions for improving the protection of the women in the society. In the United States, in 2012, president Barrack Obama issued the first strategy for prevention and response to gender-based violence across the globe.NEED AUSTRALIAN POLICIES AND EXAMPLES PLEASE.

Such polices have made a huge contribution in the fight or struggle towards gender equality in the society. Women are empowered, knowing which actions to take or where to go to whenever they face violence from the opposite gender. At the same time, because of such policies, men are couscous in dealing with women as they try to avoid the accompanying punishments of being violent against women. As a result, violence against women is reducing in the society. Though older women will still opt to leave violence relationships, men are forced to take responsibility over their children. SENTENCE IS NOT CLEAR. The child rights Act has been of much help for such women. Whenever a woman leaves the violent relationship, she would simplyneed to report to the government and receive child support from her former husband.

Implementation of such policies, therefore, have granted women the chance to still focus on their careers and economic gaols even after leaving their relationship just because they are not overwhelmed by responsibilities. Studies show that single older women are doing well financially compared to their married counterparts as well as some men and especially those forced to give child support (Carson & Kerr 2017, pg. 105).

Recommendations

 

IT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE RECOMMENDATIONS TO LINK TO ISSUES IDENTIFIED IN THE BODY OF YOUR WORK

Australia’s government tends not to introduce an equity-based measure to mitigate poverty among the vulnerable groups for various reasons. First, most of the leaders who are supposed to be in the front-line campaigning for poverty eradication are corrupt and therefore end up using the cash set aside for development to enrich themselves insteadNEEDS SUPPORTING EVIDENCE hence leading to more poverty. Such leaders use the government funds donated to the poor for their own benefit. The poor from their communities who are supposed to benefit from these funds therefore continue suffering. If such bad leaders are not dealt with, the country will never overcome the challenge of dealing with poverty. More cases of poverty will continue coming up each year.

Ethnicity and political allegiance are also vital contributors to poverty. The people who do not belong to a particular political class or ethnic group are isolated on development leading to inequitable distribution of income and poverty in those areas. Ineffectiveness in the government also leads to a lack of implementation of equity-based programs that ensure equal distribution of resources across different social groupsSTATEMENT NEEDS SUPPORTING EVIDENCE.

            The government can employ various techniques to mitigate poverty in the vulnerable groups: the creation of job opportunities- the federal government should invest in strategies that create job opportunities for members of the society, such as infrastructure development and other economic boosters. The government can mitigate poverty among single older women by ensuring that men give child support after the separation (Summerfield, Young, Harman &Flatau 2010, pg. 84)THERE IS NO PAGE 84 PLEASE CHECK THIS CITATION. Providing child support will minimise the burden carried by single older women and hence enabling them to also focus on their career and development goals.

Another recommendation, the government should provide support for single older women like it does with other vulnerable groups such as orphans, disabledIS IT RIGHT TO REFER TO THEM AS DISABLED?and others. Single older women would be supported through grants, financial education and be exposed to entrepreneurial opportunities. Together with the child support provided by the former husbands, the single older women would prosper economically and hence minimise the high rate of poverty (Summerfield, Young, Harman &Flatau 2010, pg. 84). AGAIN, THERE IS NO PAGE 84 PLEASE CHECK THIS CITATIONAlso, the government should ensure fairness and justice for everyone to prevent the rich from exploiting the poor and making them more vulnerable due to their defencelessness.

 

 

 

 

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