what type of saccharide is glucose?
the word isomer mean?
name the two isomers of glucose
of glucose and another simple sugar,
simple sugars together in
polysaccharides like sucrose.
identify the type of lipid
pictured, explaining your
between a saturated fatty acid
and an unsaturated fatty acid,
and deduce which group the
pictured lipid belongs to.
forms this type of lipid
of this type of lipid within the
body, and suggest why its
structure lends itself to these
parts (6 marks)
reaction are these bonds
example of each where possible.
shown in this section of
sequence of codons in an
for the FIRST codon in the
molecules in the process of
initiates stage 2
biological reaction catalysed by an enzyme.
this graph explaining the
key features of the slopes
and the area signified by
the red circle.
represent the general effect
of change in pH on the rate
of an enzyme catalysed
this graph and the
reasoning behind why it is
shaped like this.
described as dipolar?
capacity. Why is this important
for organisms that live in
parts labelled A, B and C
eukaryotic and prokaryotic
cells, how do they differ
between the two?
a typical plant cell and a typical
animal cell, and discuss the
differences in terms of: –
is 2.5μm. Calculate the
magnification of this diagram.
Show your working out.
12.The diagrams below show chromosomes during stages in the process of
in the order in which these
differs from mitosis
stages of mitosis including the
immediately preceding and
iii. The penis
Classification, Biodiversity, Exchange & Transport
based on different levels of relationship.
classification, identify the eight
different tax for the polar bear
natural selection” changed our perceptions of evolution in November
observations of Darwin’s
theory of natural selection
natural selection? Describe and
give an example of each.
allopatric and sympatric
ecosystem and the various species within it. We can calculate the
biodiversity index using the following formula: –
An individual count of species in a small rock pool ecosystem is undertaken
and population numbers of its various species recorded, producing the
following table: –
for this rock-pool community.
Show your working
diversity for this community
and what does your value for
D say about the diversity here?
and large organisms respectively.
iii) The volume
having a low surface area to
volume ratio as is the case with
are adapted for effective gas
exchange, in terms of surface
area distance and
and so their systems for gas exchange have to be adapted in
completely different ways.
exchange systems in mammals
system of insects, and how
they are adapted for their
Identify and give the functions of
parts A and B
precise stage in the cardiac cycle.
cycle shown in the diagram
each of the parts A and B as
shown on the diagram
left and right ventricles of the heart, during the cardiac cycle. The
figure 0 on the ‘time’ axis indicates the start of atrial contraction.
the changes in pressure in
the left ventricle compared
with the changes in the right
pressure in the aorta with
those in the left ventricle
and write down your
as myogenic. Explain how
the cardiac cycle is
coordinated within the heart
– so here you need to think
about the underlying
between the double and
single circulatory systems
binding with oxygen than an adult’s haemoglobin.
apparatus like that shown in the diagram below.
made when this
apparatus is used to
investigate the rate of
that need to be taken in
order to make sure this
correctly. (2 marks)
Using this apparatus, four experiments were carried out with the
same shoot in the following order:
A: Still air, leaves untreated
B: Moving air, leaves untreated
C: Still air, lower surface of leaf covered with grease
D: Moving air, lower surface of leaf covered with grease
The variables of temperature and light intensity were kept constant
during the investigation and the results are shown in the following
The mean rate of water uptake during experiment A was 3.2 mm3 per
minute and the cross-sectional area of the bore of the capillary tube is 0.8
water uptake by the shoot
during experiment B. Show
your working out.
moving air on the rate of
water uptake in
the different effects of
moving air in
experiments B and D.
Energy for Biological Processes, Microbiology & Pathogens
for aerobic respiration
respiration take place?
bulk of ATP production?
in the body
the demand for energy exceeds the availability of oxygen.
conditions of anaerobic
respiration during a period of
independent (dark) reactions of photosynthesis.
You need to indicate whether the statements are light dependent or
light independent reactions: –
Uses light energy to split water
Carbon dioxide fixed
Occurs in stroma
Uses NADPH and H
and electron microscope.
Name the parts labelled A, B and C
how it is produced.
iii) Where does the light-
dependent reaction take
place in a chloroplast?
responsible for the capture
of light during the light-
dependent reaction of
graphs, how photosynthesis
is limited by: –
neither or both.
DNA and RNA
Surrounded by protein coat
Cell wall containing chitin
Membrane bound organelles
immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
mitosis is important in the production of an
to active immunity.
Explain why this is.
contributes to the infection of the host
is a dormant period. Describe the role of
the RNA in this period.
harmless but which act as antigens. In order to achieve full protection,
it is often necessary to give two injections of a vaccine. The following
graph shows how levels of antibodies change in the body following two
injections of a vaccine.
the level of antibodies in
the body following the
first and second
injections of the vaccine.
can bring about an
increase in the level of
differs from active immunity
inoculated with a number of different dilutions of the culture. Why is it
usual to inoculate several plates with each separate dilution?
colonies of bacteria. Calculate the population of bacteria that would be
found in 1 cm3 of the original culture. Show your working.
tissues of the host organism and multiply. The symptoms of the
infection may result from the production of toxins by the
microorganism or from the destruction of host tissue.
bacteria, including Salmonella and Staphylococcus
Salmonella occur 1–2 days after eating
contaminated food. However the symptoms,
resulting from infection by Staphylococcus occur
within a few hours after infection – explain this.
Gram positive. Describe how the colour of these bacteria
would differ after gram staining had been carried out.
Modern Genetics & Origins of Variation
are required for a number of reasons
has the potential to develop into more cells of any type. They show
much promise in the medical field and may lead to cures and
treatments for a variety of disorders.
iii) Multipotent cells
less ethically questionable solution than human embryonic stem cells
a living organism to produce a genetically modified organism.
used in conjunction with restriction enzymes
vectors containing the genes we desire.
is caused by a single gene. The diagram below shows part of a family
pedigree showing the inheritance of this disorder.
the inherited condition is
Create a punnet square diagram that shows the chances of Person 3’s
children being affected if the mother is also a carrier of CF.
If the percentage of children born with cystic fibrosis is a known
quantity then it is possible to calculate the probable frequency of the
recessive allele in the population. This information can be used to
estimate the percentage of people in the population who are
heterozygous for this gene using the Hardy-Weinberg equation: –
p2 + 2pq + q2
2 = 1
p is the frequency of the dominant allele
q is the frequency of the recessive allele for cystic fibrosis
p2 is the frequency of people homozygous for the normal allele
q2 is the frequency of people homozygous for the recessive allele
2pq is the frequency of heterozygous carriers
heterozygous genotype in the population.
heterozygous genotype of this genetic condition in the
know if they or their partner or perspective partner are carriers of this
disease, before deciding to have children. How could this be
mental retardation. A study was carried out into the inheritance of this
disorder in a family, and the results of the study are shown in the
pedigree chart that follows:
described as a sex-linked recessive genetic disorder.
allele, what is the genotype of person 2?
Fabry’s disease? Support your answer with evidence
different genes present within a population of a species.
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