Industrial Revolution

1Which of the following was a social effect of the first Industrial Revolution?

a.The development of modern social classes.

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b.Relatively low wages until later in the 1800s.

  1. pollution.

d.Overcrowded living conditions.

e.All of these options.

3Which of the following best defines the term ‘socialism’?

  1. Socialism sought to address both the economic repercussions of the industrial revolution, especially in terms of the living conditions of workers, and to provide a new moral order for modern society. Socialism proposed a new and better moral order, one in which the members of a society would care not only for themselves, but for one another. Before 1848, socialism consisted of movements that shared a concern with the plight of working people and the regrowth of organic social bonds. After 1848, however, socialism became increasingly militant because socialists realized that a major restructuring of society could not happen through peaceful means.
  2. None of these options.

 

  1. A political ideology that held that the traditions of rule were the best and most desirable principles of government, having proven themselves relatively stable and successful over the course of 1,000 years of European history. Socialism was totally opposed to the ideas of universal legal equality and universal suffrage, and it basically amounted to an attempt to maintain a legal political hierarchy to go along with the existing social and economic hierarchy of European society.
  2. A political ideology that was based on the Enlightenment concepts of reason, rationality, and progress from the eighteenth century. Socialism held that freedom in all its forms—freedom from the despotic rule of kings, from the obsolete privilege of nobles, from economic interference and religious intolerance, from occupational restrictions and limitations of speech and assembly—could only improve the quality of society and the well-being of its members. The most fundamental belief of socialism was that there should be equality before the law, in stark contrast to the old “feudal” order of legally-defined social estates. From that starting point of equality, the very purpose of law to socialists was to protect the rights of each and every citizen rather than enshrine the privileges of a minority.
  3. The concept that the state should correspond to the identity of a “people,” however, the notion of “the people” was very difficult to determine.

 

4Which of the following best defines the term ‘liberalism’?

  1. Liberalism refers to global empire-building by modern states. Specifically, liberalism refers to the enormous growth of European empires in the nineteenth century, culminating in the period before World War I in which European powers controlled over 80% of the surface of the globe.

 

  1. None of these options.
  2. A political ideology that held that the traditions of rule were the best and most desirable principles of government, having proven themselves relatively stable and successful over the course of 1,000 years of European history. Liberalism was totally opposed to the ideas of universal legal equality and universal suffrage, and it basically amounted to an attempt to maintain a legal political hierarchy to go along with the existing social and economic hierarchy of European society.

  3. Liberalism sought to address both the economic repercussions of the industrial revolution, especially in terms of the living conditions of workers, and to provide a new moral order for modern society. Liberalism proposed a new and better moral order, one in which the members of a society would care not only for themselves, but for one another. Before 1848, liberalism consisted of movements that shared a concern with the plight of working people and the regrowth of organic social bonds. After 1848, however, liberalism became increasingly militant because liberals realized that a major restructuring of society could not happen through peaceful means.
  4. The concept that the state should correspond to the identity of a “people,” however, the notion of “the people” was very difficult to determine.

 

  1. Which of the following best defines the term ‘nationalism’?
  2. Nationalism sought to address both the economic repercussions of the industrial revolution, especially in terms of the living conditions of workers, and to provide a new moral order for modern society. Nationalism proposed a new and better moral order, one in which the members of a society would care not only for themselves, but for one another. Before 1848, nationalism consisted of movements that shared a concern with the plight of working people and the regrowth of organic social bonds. After 1848, however, nationalism became increasingly militant because nationalists realized that a major restructuring of society could not happen through peaceful means.

 

b.None of these options.

 

 

  1. A political ideology that was based on the Enlightenment concepts of reason, rationality, and progress from the eighteenth century. Nationalism held that freedom in all its forms—freedom from the despotic rule of kings, from the obsolete privilege of nobles, from economic interference and religious intolerance, from occupational restrictions and limitations of speech and assembly—could only improve the quality of society and the well-being of its members. The most fundamental belief of nationalism was that there should be equality before the law, in stark contrast to the old “feudal” order of legally-defined social estates. From that starting point of equality, the very purpose of law to nationalists was to protect the rights of each and every citizen rather than enshrine the privileges of a minority.
  2. The concept that the state should correspond to the identity of a “people,” however, the notion of “the people” was very difficult to determine.
  3. A political ideology that held that the traditions of rule were the best and most desirable principles of government, having proven themselves relatively stable and successful over the course of 1,000 years of European history. Nationalism was totally opposed to the ideas of universal legal equality and universal suffrage, and it basically amounted to an attempt to maintain a legal political hierarchy to go along with the existing social and economic hierarchy of European society.

6.Which of the following best defines the term ‘conservatism’?

  1. Conservatism sought to address both the economic repercussions of the industrial revolution, especially in terms of the living conditions of workers, and to provide a new moral order for modern society. Conservatism proposed a new and better moral order, one in which the members of a society would care not only for themselves, but for one another. Before 1848, conservatism consisted of movements that shared a concern with the plight of working people and the regrowth of organic social bonds. After 1848, however, conservatism became increasingly militant because conservatives realized that a major restructuring of society could not happen through peaceful means.
  2. A political ideology that held that the traditions of rule were the best and most desirable principles of government, having proven themselves relatively stable and successful over the course of 1,000 years of European history. Conservatism was totally opposed to the ideas of universal legal equality and universal suffrage, and it basically amounted to an attempt to maintain a legal political hierarchy to go along with the existing social and economic hierarchy of European society.
  3. None of these options.

 

 

  1. A political ideology that was based on the Enlightenment concepts of reason, rationality, and progress from the eighteenth century. Conservatism held that freedom in all its forms—freedom from the despotic rule of kings, from the obsolete privilege of nobles, from economic interference and religious intolerance, from occupational restrictions and limitations of speech and assembly—could only improve the quality of society and the well-being of its members. The most fundamental belief of conservatism was that there should be equality before the law, in stark contrast to the old “feudal” order of legally-defined social estates. From that starting point of equality, the very purpose of law to conservatives was to protect the rights of each and every citizen rather than enshrine the privileges of a minority.
  2. Conservatism refers to global empire-building by modern states. Specifically, conservatism refers to the enormous growth of European empires in the nineteenth century, culminating in the period before World War I in which European powers controlled over 80% of the surface of the globe.

 

7.Which of the following powers was known as the “sick man of Europe”?

 

Belgium.

 

 

The Austrian Empire.

 

 

The Ottoman Empire.

 

 

Spain.

 

 

Italy.

 

 

Great Britain.

 

 

France.

 

 

Prussia.

 

 

8.Which of the following was a goal of the Congress of Vienna?

  1. The five great powers of the Congress (the Austrian Empire, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, and France) sought to reward themselves with territory taken from weaker European states.
  2. The suppression of future revolutionary movements in Europe
  3. The creation of a long-lasting conservative order/government in France.
  4. All of these options.

 

 

9.A second Industrial Revolution occurred during the second half of the 1800s. This second Industrial Revolution resulted in new technological innovations such as modern steel, electrical generators, the telephone, and automobiles. As a result of these new technological advances, European states imperialized foreign lands (outside of Europe) due to a need for which of the following:

 

  1. The prevention of another French Revolution from erupting and the maintenance of a balance of power in Europe amongst European states.
  2. Inspiring the working class to take up arms against state governments and owners of industry.
  3. Improving the lives of the “inferior” or “uncivilized” people of foreign lands (outside of Europe).
  4. Raw materials, such as rubber, mineral ores, and cotton, that were components of the new technological advances.
  5. The creation of a sense of national identity among the general population of a given European state.

10.Which of the following best defines the term ‘imperialism’?

  1. Imperialism sought to address both the economic repercussions of the industrial revolution, especially in terms of the living conditions of workers, and to provide a new moral order for modern society. Imperialism proposed a new and better moral order, one in which the members of a society would care not only for themselves, but for one another. Before 1848, imperialism consisted of movements that shared a concern with the plight of working people and the regrowth of organic social bonds. After 1848, however, imperialism became increasingly militant because imperialists realized that a major restructuring of society could not happen through peaceful means.
  2. A political ideology that held that the traditions of rule were the best and most desirable principles of government, having proven themselves relatively stable and successful over the course of 1,000 years of European history. Imperialism was totally opposed to the ideas of universal legal equality and universal suffrage, and it basically amounted to an attempt to maintain a legal political hierarchy to go along with the existing social and economic hierarchy of European society.
  3. Imperialism refers to global empire-building by modern states. Specifically, imperialism refers to the enormous growth of European empires in the nineteenth century, culminating in the period before World War I in which European powers controlled over 80% of the surface of the globe.
  4. The concept that the state should correspond to the identity of a “people,” however, the notion of “the people” was very difficult to determine.
  5. A political ideology that was based on the Enlightenment concepts of reason, rationality, and progress from the eighteenth century. Imperialism held that freedom in all its forms—freedom from the despotic rule of kings, from the obsolete privilege of nobles, from economic interference and religious intolerance, from occupational restrictions and limitations of speech and assembly—could only improve the quality of society and the well-being of its members. The most fundamental belief of imperialism was that there should be equality before the law, in stark contrast to the old “feudal” order of legally-defined social estates. From that starting point of equality, the very purpose of law to imperialists was to protect the rights of each and every citizen rather than enshrine the privileges of a minority.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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